Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid, which the human body is already capable of synthesising. It was initially isolated from watermelon ("citrullus" in Latin, the origin of its name).
It is an amino acid present both in the liver and in the kidneys, where it plays a key role in the urea cycle and the elimination of ammonia. However, its role as a precursor to arginine and the consequent nitric oxide-stimulating effect and the dilation of blood vessels explains its high level of popularity in sports. This action facilitates the much sought-after "muscle pumping" during training.
The chemical formula of citrulline
It is important to note that taking an L-citrulline supplement is much more efficacious in increasing concentrations of arginine in the blood in comparison to taking L-arginine or an arginine supplement!
In fact, pure citrulline, unlike arginine, is strongly subject to the action of arginase and other enzymes. It undergoes a very limited intestinal catabolism and also bypasses hepatic metabolism by directly reaching the kidneys where it is converted into L-arginine.
Watermelon is naturally rich in citrulline
The increased bioavailability of arginine in the blood, thanks to the vasodilatory and 'pump' effect, not only bestows a sense of aesthetic fullness but also increases the flow of blood and nutrients to the muscles. This results in a general improvement in performance, reduced recovery times and lowered muscle damage markers following intense physical training, as well as an improvement in body composition in terms of lean mass/fat mass ratio.
In particular, the studies conducted on athletes under various conditions, consuming varying dosages that ranged from about 1.5g to 8g/day, at different intervals, seem to show that efficacy is proportionate to the dosage and duration of intake. The best cost/benefit ratio is approximately a single dose of 6 grams before exercise.
Glutathione or GSH is a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glycine and glutamate. It known, above all, for its antioxidant, detoxifying and immune system strengthening properties. It is precisely the sensitive antioxidant action that makes it a powerful ally of L-citrulline.
in fact, several in vivo studies have shown that glutathione can slowly stabilise and release nitric oxide, protecting it from oxidative damage, greatly amplifying the supplementation action with L-citrulline exclusively stimulating nitric oxide.
The chemical formula of glutathione
The best time to take L-citrulline and glutathione is about 30 minutes before your workout.
It is a combination of supplements that is essential to your pre-workout routine, together with all the nutrients (essential amino acids, cyclodextrins, mineral salts, volumising and moisturising substances such as creatine and glutamine, nootropics and stimulants) that you can include in your pre-workout or intra-workout routine, based on your specific needs.
In the Yamamoto nutrition line, you will find 4 different pre-workout formulations that contain citrulline and Setria® Glutathione Kyowa, a formula that optimises the pharmacokinetics, namely the bioavailability of the tripeptide glutathione within the body:
Agnese Russo, Graduate in Dietetics and Engineering, IFBB pro league professional athlete, Yamomoto Nutrition Research Team. Email: agnese.r@yamamotonutrition